Article Type


Subject Area

Environmental Pollution


Water, an essential resource for sustaining life on our planet, is crucial for both human beings and the overall ecosystem. However, in recent decades, several factors, including population growth, rapid industrialization, urbanization, and unsustainable utilization of natural resources, have significantly impacted the quality of water. Industries such as textiles, leather tanning, cosmetics, and pigmentation extensively employ colored compounds called dyes for various purposes. Synthetic dyes have largely replaced natural dyes due to their superior durability against washing, heat, light, pH, and exposure to biological agents. Azo dyes, sulfur dyes, and pigment dyes are some examples of dyes used in industrial processes. Unfortunately, dyes pose serious environmental risks, being carcinogenic and mutagenic to humans. Moreover, their resistance to degradation due to their xenobiotic properties and chemical structures exacerbates the problem. Therefore, it becomes imperative to employ different methods for the removal of dyes. One promising approach is the use of plants in a process called phytoremediation, which offers a cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and efficient solution for dye removal. Phytoremediation utilizes plants to cleanse the environment by eliminating both inorganic and organic waste pollutants. In the context of dye waste, this review explores a diverse range of aquatic plant species capable of decolorizing dye-contaminated wastewater. It also delves into the mechanisms through which aquatic plants remove dyes, highlights previous studies on dye removal by different aquatic plant species, and concludes with recommendations for further research and action.

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